The term Nephrology is combination of Greek words, nephros (kidneys) and logos (science), and it is the title of scientific branch dealing with normal functions of kidneys, diseases and disorders of kidneys, treatment thereof and renal replacement treatments, such as dialysis or kidney transplant. Systemic diseases, which can affect kidneys such as diabetes mellitus and rheumatic diseases, and hypertension as well as osseous diseases secondary to renal diseases are also dealt by nephrology.


Physicians who are trained and specialized in nephrology are called nephrologists. In our country, it is necessary to attend six-year medical education followed by four-year residency education in Internal Medicine and finally three years of nephrology subspecialty education to be a nephrologist.


Nephrology deals with diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases, including hypertension and fluid-electrolyte disorders, as well as renal replacement treatments such as dialysis and renal transplant. Patients are referred to nephrologists due to acute renal damage (failure), chronic renal disease (failure), blood in urine, protein in urine, painful urination (dysuria), swelling (edema), kidney stones, hypertension, diabetic renal involvement (diabetic nephropathy), affected kidneys by systemic diseases such as rheumatic diseases, renal infections (nephritis, pyelonephritis, etc.), urinary tract infections, cystic renal problems, acid-base and electrolyte disorders. Among the procedures performed by nephrologists are renal biopsy, placement of hemodialysis catheter, placement of peritoneal dialysis catheter, management of hemodialysis fistula, monitoring and supervision of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, preparation of candidate patient for renal transplant and monitoring and supervision of patients during and after renal transplantation.​

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